Health Information

Gallstones

What are gallstones?

Gallstones form when bile stored in the gallbladder hardens into stone-like material. Too much cholesterol, bile salts, or bilirubin (bile pigment) can cause gallstones.

When gallstones are present in the gallbladder itself, it is called cholelithiasis. When gallstones are present in the bile ducts, it is called choledocholithiasis. Gallstones that obstruct bile ducts can lead to a severe or life-threatening infection of the bile ducts, pancreas, or liver. Bile ducts can also be obstructed by cancer or trauma.

What causes gallstones?

Cholesterol stones are believed to form when bile contains too much cholesterol, too much bilirubin, not enough bile salts, or when the gallbladder does not empty as it should for some other reason.

Pigment stones tend to develop in people who have cirrhosis, biliary tract infections, and hereditary blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia. The causes of these stones are uncertain.

Treatment for gallstones:

Specific treatment for gallstones will be determined by your physician based on:
  • your age, overall health, and medical history
  • extent of the condition
  • your tolerance of specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • expectations for the course of the condition
  • your opinion or preference